Gut hormones' regulation of fat production abnormal in obesity

The gut hormone FGF19, released a few hours after eating, turns off fat production by regulating gene expression in the liver, but this regulation is abnormal in obesity, researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign report. The study, ‘Intestinal FGF15/19 physiologically repress hepatic lipogenesis in the late fed-state by activating SHP and DNMT3A’, published in Nature Communications, was led by molecular and integrative physiology professor Jongsook Kim Kemper and research scientist Young-Chae Kim.

Patients with hypothalamic obesity see positive outcomes from Tesomet study

Saniona has announced positive top-line results from the Phase 2 open-label extension study of Tesomet in patients with hypothalamic obesity (HO). Patients treated with Tesomet for nearly one year (24 week double-blind followed by 24 week open label extension) demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in body weight and waist circumference, as well as improvements in glycaemic control. No clinically meaningful differences in heart rate or blood pressure were observed over the course of the trial.

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) hormone suppresses food intake and increase satiety

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) hormone could be used as a potential treatment in people with obesity whose natural signals for feeling full no longer work, after researchers found that it can suppress food intake and increase the feeling of fullness in mice and has shown similar results in humans and non-human primates. The outcomes were reported in the paper, ‘Lipocalin-2 is an anorexigenic signal in primates’, published in eLife.

Remission of obesity-related complications after adolescent bariatric surgery

Eighty to 90% of adolescents benefit from lasting weight loss following bariatric surgery and most experience the remission of obesity-related complications such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain, among others, according to researchers from Children's Hospital Colorado (Children's Colorado).

Bariatric surgery may reduce COVID-19 severity in patients with obesity

A Cleveland Clinic study has reported that among patients who have obesity and who tested positive for COVID-19, a past history of bariatric surgery was significantly associated with a lower risk of hospital and intensive care unit admission. The results of the study, ‘Association of prior metabolic and bariatric surgery with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with obesity’, were published in the journal of Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.

Adipose tissue and the inflammatory factors that aggravate COVID-19

There is growing evidence that adipose tissue plays a key role in the aggravation of COVID-19. One of the theories under investigation is that fat cells (adipocytes) act as a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 and increase viral load in obese or overweight individuals. Scientists also suspect that during infection, fat cells release substances into the bloodstream that boost the inflammatory reaction triggered by the virus in the organism.

Leptin plays a role in the development of obesity at a young age

Young children of African ancestry are more at risk of developing obesity if they possess a genetic variant that reduces their ability to produce the hormone leptin, according to a study, ‘Genetic Studies of Leptin Concentrations Implicate Leptin in the Regulation of Early Adiposity’, published in the journal Diabetes. Interestingly, adults with the variant do not have the same risk, suggesting that leptin plays a role in the development of obesity at a young age but the obesity does not continue into adulthood.

High-protein total diet replacements a promising strategy to combat obesity

In a study comparing the impact of a high-protein total diet replacement (HP-TDR) to that of a control diet (CON), a typical North American diet, researchers led by Camila Oliveira, a doctoral student at the University of Alberta, reported that a HP-TDR led to higher total energy expenditure (EE), increased fat oxidation and negative fat balance. These results suggest that a HP-TDR may promote fat loss compared with a conventional isocaloric diet.

CT scan is predictive of internal herniation if mesenteric defect is closed

A computer tomography (CT) scan can be predictive for the diagnosis of internal herniation (IH), if the mesenteric defect is closed following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), however, the diagnostic accuracy of a CT scan is not useful in a patient with open mesenteric defect, according to researchers from Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden and the Dutch Obesity Clinic West & LUMC, The Hague, The Netherlands. The findings, ‘Internal Herniation Incidence After RYGB and the Predictive Ability of a CT Scan as a Diagnostic Tool’, were published in Obesity Surgery.

The experience of Israeli bariatric surgeons during COVID

Bariatric surgeons in Israel have reported experiencing a variance in their reactions during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the results from an anonymous web-based questionnaire sent to all active bariatric surgeons (n=63) in Israel that sought to portray the practices and attitudes of Israeli bariatric surgeons in the first phase of the pandemic.

People under 50 with overweight and obesity at greater risk for severe COVID-19

Being under 50 years of age does not protect against the dangers of COVID-19 if you are overweight, according to a study from UT Southwestern (UTSW). While all adults who are overweight or have obesity are at greater risk for serious complications from the disease, the link is strongest for those age 50 and under. More than 42 percent of American adults have obesity, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and approximately another 30 percent are overweight.

Five preoperative characteristics could predict success of RYGB

Researchers from Brazil have developed and validated an accurate predictive model that comprises the sum of five outcome variables to predict success of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) based exclusively on patients’ preoperative characteristics. The findings could be used to prioritise patients with the best indication for the procedure and incorporated in the public health system as a support tool in the decision-making process.

Pyruvate kinase enzyme could be new target for treating T2DM

Researchers have discovered a previously unknown way that pancreatic cells decide how much insulin to secrete, which could provide a promising new target to develop drugs for boosting insulin production in people with T2DM. In two papers published in Cell Metabolism, scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and their colleagues point to an overlooked enzyme known as pyruvate kinase as the primary way pancreatic beta cells sense sugar levels and release the appropriate amount of insulin.