Japanese researchers have reported that obesity causes are linked to various factors in addition to the individual's current socioeconomic circumstances, including childhood experiences, particularly those of abuse.
The gut hormone FGF19, released a few hours after eating, turns off fat production by regulating gene expression in the liver, but this regulation is abnormal in obesity, researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign report. The study, ‘Intestinal FGF15/19 physiologically repress hepatic lipogenesis in the late fed-state by activating SHP and DNMT3A’, published in Nature Communications, was led by molecular and integrative physiology professor Jongsook Kim Kemper and research scientist Young-Chae Kim.
Saniona has announced positive top-line results from the Phase 2 open-label extension study of Tesomet in patients with hypothalamic obesity (HO). Patients treated with Tesomet for nearly one year (24 week double-blind followed by 24 week open label extension) demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in body weight and waist circumference, as well as improvements in glycaemic control. No clinically meaningful differences in heart rate or blood pressure were observed over the course of the trial.
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) hormone could be used as a potential treatment in people with obesity whose natural signals for feeling full no longer work, after researchers found that it can suppress food intake and increase the feeling of fullness in mice and has shown similar results in humans and non-human primates. The outcomes were reported in the paper, ‘Lipocalin-2 is an anorexigenic signal in primates’, published in eLife.
Researchers from Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA, who examined the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on bone mineral density on adolescents after surgery have reported bone loss and an increase in bone marrow fat, despite marked loss of body fat.
Eighty to 90% of adolescents benefit from lasting weight loss following bariatric surgery and most experience the remission of obesity-related complications such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and musculoskeletal pain, among others, according to researchers from Children's Hospital Colorado (Children's Colorado).
A Cleveland Clinic study has reported that among patients who have obesity and who tested positive for COVID-19, a past history of bariatric surgery was significantly associated with a lower risk of hospital and intensive care unit admission. The results of the study, ‘Association of prior metabolic and bariatric surgery with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with obesity’, were published in the journal of Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases.
Epidemiologists from the University of Pittsburgh have published two separate analyses in the Annals of Surgery, that could help guide clinicians and policymakers in counselling bariatric surgery patients to improve their quality of life for many years to come.
There is growing evidence that adipose tissue plays a key role in the aggravation of COVID-19. One of the theories under investigation is that fat cells (adipocytes) act as a reservoir for SARS-CoV-2 and increase viral load in obese or overweight individuals. Scientists also suspect that during infection, fat cells release substances into the bloodstream that boost the inflammatory reaction triggered by the virus in the organism.
More than half of men (55%) and two thirds (65%) of women currently aged 20 years in India will likely develop diabetes in their life time, with most of those cases (around 95%) likely to be T2DM, according to research by an international team from India, the UK and the US, led by Dr Shammi Luhar, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, UK.
Young children of African ancestry are more at risk of developing obesity if they possess a genetic variant that reduces their ability to produce the hormone leptin, according to a study, ‘Genetic Studies of Leptin Concentrations Implicate Leptin in the Regulation of Early Adiposity’, published in the journal Diabetes. Interestingly, adults with the variant do not have the same risk, suggesting that leptin plays a role in the development of obesity at a young age but the obesity does not continue into adulthood.
Researchers studying a group of UK healthcare workers discovered that non-white individuals recovering from COVID-19 displayed higher antibody levels than white individuals, with significantly greater levels observed in Asian individuals.
Patients with obesity who are over the age of 60 can lose an equivalent amount of weight as younger people using only lifestyle changes, according to a study from the University of Warwick and University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire (UHCW) NHS Trust, demonstrating that age is no barrier to losing weight.
In a study comparing the impact of a high-protein total diet replacement (HP-TDR) to that of a control diet (CON), a typical North American diet, researchers led by Camila Oliveira, a doctoral student at the University of Alberta, reported that a HP-TDR led to higher total energy expenditure (EE), increased fat oxidation and negative fat balance. These results suggest that a HP-TDR may promote fat loss compared with a conventional isocaloric diet.
A computer tomography (CT) scan can be predictive for the diagnosis of internal herniation (IH), if the mesenteric defect is closed following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), however, the diagnostic accuracy of a CT scan is not useful in a patient with open mesenteric defect, according to researchers from Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden and the Dutch Obesity Clinic West & LUMC, The Hague, The Netherlands. The findings, ‘Internal Herniation Incidence After RYGB and the Predictive Ability of a CT Scan as a Diagnostic Tool’, were published in Obesity Surgery.
Bariatric surgeons in Israel have reported experiencing a variance in their reactions during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to the results from an anonymous web-based questionnaire sent to all active bariatric surgeons (n=63) in Israel that sought to portray the practices and attitudes of Israeli bariatric surgeons in the first phase of the pandemic.
Researchers led by MedUni Vienna have discovered the signalling pathways responsible for the development of a valuable type of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) in obesity, which prevents lipotoxicity, the process whereby fat molecules are deposited in non-adipose tissues.
Being under 50 years of age does not protect against the dangers of COVID-19 if you are overweight, according to a study from UT Southwestern (UTSW). While all adults who are overweight or have obesity are at greater risk for serious complications from the disease, the link is strongest for those age 50 and under. More than 42 percent of American adults have obesity, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and approximately another 30 percent are overweight.
Researchers from Brazil have developed and validated an accurate predictive model that comprises the sum of five outcome variables to predict success of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) based exclusively on patients’ preoperative characteristics. The findings could be used to prioritise patients with the best indication for the procedure and incorporated in the public health system as a support tool in the decision-making process.
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown way that pancreatic cells decide how much insulin to secrete, which could provide a promising new target to develop drugs for boosting insulin production in people with T2DM. In two papers published in Cell Metabolism, scientists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and their colleagues point to an overlooked enzyme known as pyruvate kinase as the primary way pancreatic beta cells sense sugar levels and release the appropriate amount of insulin.