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Artificial sweeteners

Artificial sweeteners linked to risk of weight gain

Artificial sweeteners may also be associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease

Artificial sweeteners may be associated with long-term weight gain and increased risk of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease, according to researchers from the University of Manitoba's George & Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare Innovation and the Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

. Consumption of artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, sucralose and stevia, is widespread and increasing. Emerging data indicate that artificial (non-nutritive) sweeteners may have negative effects on metabolism, gut bacteria and appetite, although according to the researchers the evidence is conflicting.

"Despite the fact that millions of individuals routinely consume artificial sweeteners, relatively few patients have been included in clinical trials of these products," said author Dr Ryan Zarychanski, Assistant Professor, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba. "We found that data from clinical trials do not clearly support the intended benefits of artificial sweeteners for weight management."

To better understand whether consuming artificial sweeteners is associated with negative long-term effects on weight and heart disease, researchers from the University of Manitoba's George & Fay Yee Centre for Healthcare Innovation conducted a systematic review of 37 studies that followed over 400 000 people for an average of ten years. Seven of these studies were randomised controlled trials (the gold standard in clinical research), involving 1003 people followed for six months on average.

Overall, the trials did not show a consistent effect of artificial sweeteners on weight loss, and the longer observational studies showed a link between consumption of artificial sweeteners and relatively higher risks of weight gain and obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and other health issues.

The study, ‘Nonnutritive sweeteners and cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies’, was published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

"Caution is warranted until the long-term health effects of artificial sweeteners are fully characterized," said lead author, Dr Meghan Azad, Assistant Professor, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba. "Given the widespread and increasing use of artificial sweeteners, and the current epidemic of obesity and related diseases, more research is needed to determine the long-term risks and benefits of these products."

Azad’s team at the Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba is undertaking a new study to understand how artificial sweetener consumption by pregnant women may influence weight gain, metabolism and gut bacteria in their infants.

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